is human sperm made up of?
assume you are asking about sperm plus the seminal fluid (a.k.a.
semen) which contains the sperm. Each sperm or spermatozoon,
(spermatozoa = more than one of them) is actually made up
of three parts, the head, the midpiece and the tail. One cell
is called a spermatozoa.
head contains chromosomes or genetic material (DNA) and on
the outside of the head enzymes needed for the penetration
and fertilization of an egg. The midpiece contains stuff
that provides energy for the locomotion of the tail. The tail
helps the sperm swim. Semen contains small amounts of more
than thirty elements, including fructose, ascorbic acid, cholesterol,
creatine, citric acid, lactic acid, nitrogen, vitamin B12,
and various salts and enzymes.
go back to the inside of the head of the sperm. All normal cells
have 46 chromosomes but sperm have half that number or, 23. If and
when the sperm joins ups with the females, egg (ovum) which
also has 23 chromosomes, together they add up to 46 chromosomes.
The middle section controls the sperms activities.
sperm or (spermatozoa -- which are the little swimming critters)
make up only about 5% of what a man ejaculates each time he
ejaculates. This represents about 100 to 400 million of them!
Therefore, they are very, very, very tiny, in fact a single
sperm is the smallest cell in the body. The rest of what a
man ejaculates in his ejaculate, which is about
a teaspoonful (5 ml), is made up of water, sugar, protein,
vitamin C, zinc, and prostaglandins.
or seminal fluid is the mixture of sperm and the secretions of the
seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and the bulbourethral glands.
For more on the sperm cell, see the sperm
Q. What do I do if I miss taking a birth control pill?
A. Okay, this is how it goes. If you miss 1 pill, take 2 the next day.
If you miss 2 pills take 3 the next day. If you miss more than that,
don't take any, call your health care provider and always make sure
to use condoms and spermicide as backup protection against pregnancy
and sexually transmitted diseases since you are no longer protected
from pregnancy by the pill.
Q. When do I need to see a gynecologist?
A. Pay attention to your body. If
you notice unusual gynecological symptoms, make an appointment with
your health care provider at once. You might have an easy to treat
infection or a maybe a more serious problem. The sooner you catch
it, the better. Reasons to see your doctor or health care provider
right away include:
If you have been a victim of rape or sexual abuse
Vaginal discharge that's heavier than usual or has a strong odor
Genital lumps or sores
Vaginal redness, itching or burning
A breast lump, abnormal nipple discharge, pain or change in breast
Abdominal pain aside from your usual cramps
Changes in your period after you've been menstruating for
more than a year
See your gynecologist for an annual Pap smear and STD tests. Early
treatment can cure many STDs and reduce the impact of others.
Q. How many eggs does a woman have
when she is born?
A. Unlike men, who produce new sperm
cells daily throughout most of their lifetime, women are born with
a finite number of undeveloped eggs; around one to two million in
women reach puberty and start menstruating, only about 300,000 immature
egg cells, or follicles, remain. Some of these begin to develop
with each monthly cycle, but during this time, only one follicle
matures into an ovum (egg) and bursts from an ovary into the fallopian
tubes, initiating ovulation.
a process known as atresia, many of the follicles that don't develop
into mature egg cells degenerate. As a result, only a few hundred
remain at menopause, which usually begins at around forty-five or
fifty years of age; however, because of the hormonal changes that
accompany menopause, the remaining follicles are unlikely to mature
and become viable eggs. But this does not mean that women going
through menopause cannot get pregnant.